According to Wikipedia,
of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element,
such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.
Since different languages use different sets of sounds (especially different phonemes),
languages differ in their minimal pairs.
This page contains links to lists of minimal pairs, by language, in alphabetical order.
- Linguistics Stack Exchange: Are there minimal pairs for “l” vs “ll” in Albanian?.
Chinese (Standard Chinese)
- Richard Jefferies (UK, Spain): Mǎ or Mà? Chinese Tone Practice. Learn Chinese Tones using Miminal Pairs.
- Yangyang Cheng: Chinese Tone Pairs: How to Practice and Master Mandarin Tones (27-minute Google Hangout recording on YouTube).
- WGroleau: Chinese minimal pairs, b/p with pinyin and audio files, on Quizlet.com.
- Niederländische Philologie, Freie Universität Berlin:
Eine Einführung in die niederländische Sprachwissenschaft: Phonetik und Phonologie.
Article about phonetics and phonology that contains a few examples of minimal pairs in Dutch.
Dutch Fricatives (PDF).
A short paper that discusses, among other things, why
constructing minimal pairs in Dutch is difficult for syllable or word-final positions.There are a few examples of (near) minimal pairs at the end of the article.
- Minimal pairs for English RP: lists by John Higgins (British English).
- Caroline Bowen (Australian speech therapist):
- Worksheets: Contrasts; Minimal Pairs; Near Minimal Pairs www.speech-language-therapy dot com, 29.10.2011.
- Word Lists: Minimal Pairs www.speech-language-therapy dot com, 18.02.2012.
- Ted Power (UK):
- EnglishClub (founded by Josef Essberger, UK): Minimal pairs.
- David Recine: Practice English Listening and Pronunciation with Minimal Pairs, Magoosh TOEFL Blog, 20.06.1015. (USA)
- Pronuncian: American English Pronunciation: Minimal pairs.
- Minimal pairs in Wikimedia Commons. There are examples from several languages.
- (DIN Language Learning is a YouTube channel that contains videos with minimal pairs for speakers of various languages. See the playlists. See for example English pronunciation for French speakers: Listening activities with minimal pairs (10 videos). Some of the voices sound robotic.)
- Minimuma paro: Wikipedia article with minimal pairs in Esperanto.
- Eric_FLE: Catégorie : Minimal pairs, Français facile - French for Beginners: series of blog posts with embedded YouTube videos that each focus on a specific minimal pair.
- French Stack Exchange:
List of French minimal pairs:
Contains both links to sites with some minimal pairs and advice on generating such lists.
- Flimzy / Jonathan Hall: minimal-pairs: open-source tool for finding minimal pairs given a corpus of words. The source code repository also contains a list of minimal pairs for French. See also the blogpost List of French Minimal Pairs.
- Memrise: French Pronunciation With Minimal Pairs: a course on Memrise.
- Linguistics Stack Exchange: List of French minimal pairs: suggests generating a list of French minimal pairs by yourself.
- Linguistics Stack Exchange: Georgian minimal pairs with p' t' k'.
- Jürgen Trouvain Minimalpaare (PDF): minimal pairs for German on a single page.
- Kristin Kopf:
Wie man gefühlte Paprika stellen kann: Minimalpaare,
Sprachlog / Bremer Sprachblog, 27.02.2015.
Gives a few examples of minimal pairs and asks readers to submit more examples in the comments.
- Ear-training with Minimal Pairs?. A question posted on German Language Stack Exchange in June 2015.
- Liste deutscher Minimalpaare: posted on German Language Stack Exchange in February 2017.
- Deutsche Sprachwissenschaft (Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel): Einf Sprwiss 4 - Phonologie.pdf: a presentation that serves as an introduction to German phonology. Slide 8 contains some examples of minimal pairs.
- (There is nothing useful in the German Stack Exchange question Resource for German minimal pairs.)
- Minimalpaarcluster: discussion thread on linguisten.de that lists minimal pairs starting from Bein.
- Italian Stack Exchange: Phonology: what is the most useful list of Italian minimal pairs?
- Hyekyung Sung-Frear (Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center): Korean Listening Skill Development with Sound Development with Sound Discrimination Instrument (PDF of a presentation at the 16th AATK conference at Yale University in 2011).
- Aaron: 120 Days to TOPIK #7 – Increase Listening Comprehension by Training your Brain with Minimal Pairs, Key to Korean blog, 29.06.2015.
- Reddit Korean: Minimal pairs in Korean (2016)
- Reddit Korean: Korean minimal pairs? (2017)
- Motivate Korean: How to Improve Your Korean Pronunciation (YouTube, 11 minutes, 14.08.2015). This video does not provide minimal pairs but refers to the My Korean Ear Training Game.
- Korean Audio Request - Korean / 최소 대립쌍 (Minimal Pairs), RhinoSpike, 03.07.2016.
- Linguistics Stack Exchange: Seeking Lao minimal pairs for /ɯ/ vs /ɤ/ vs /ɯː/ vs /ɤː/: no answers, only comments.
- Latviešu valodas minimālie pāri pēc intonācijas: minimal pairs in Latvian on the Latvian Wikipedia.
- Brazilian Portuguese Minimal Pairs List?, reddit: discussion thread started in 2017.
- Minimal Pairs, Learn European Portuguese Pronunciation (no date).
- Spanish minimal pairs (audio file in ogg format) in Wikimedia Commons.
- Christian Lehmann:
Lists the following minimal pairs for ceceo: cima - sima; caza - casa.
- Wikipedia: Lista över svenska ordaccentsskilda minimala par (word stress).
- Wikipedia: Lista över svenska vokallängdsskilda minimala par (vowels).
- Wikipedia: Lista över svenska minimala par mellan sj- och tj-ljudet (sj versus tj).
- Linguistics Stack Exchange: List of minimal pairs in Turkish: someone generated a list of minimal pairs (covering only two-letter syllables).