Stephen Krashen's language learning theory is an example of a comprehension-based approach:
- Comprehension approach. Examples:
Input Hypothesis or Monitor Model
The main source about the input hypothesis or the monitor model is Stephen D. Krashen's own website.
- Input hypothesis or monitor model (Wikipedia).
- Prof. Stephen Krashen talks about comprehensible input, explicit teaching methods ... and much more! (25 minutes, a YouTube video provided by TESOLacademic.org, a website maintained by Huw Jarvis).
- Schütz, Ricardo: Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition, English Made in Brazil, 22.06.2014.
- Kaufmann, Steve: Stephen Krashen, an interview, a 30-minute conversation about various aspects of language acquisition (2013). (Steve Kaufmann is a Canadian who has a website and a YouTube channel about language learning.)
- Kaufmann, Steve: Stephen Krashen: Comprehensible Input, a 14-minute conversation at the Language Festival / Festival des Langues, Montreal, 25–27.08.2017 (uploaded on 28.08.2017). The conversation covers several topics, for example learning Standard Chinese initially without focusing on the characters (just listening and pinyin).
- Kaufmann, Steve: What Is Comprehensible Input? (YouTube, 10 minutes, 31.08.2017): a video created just after the Language Festival (see above) about how Steve Kaufmann and the LingQ platform use comprehensible input.
- Richards, Olly; Krashen, Stephen: Stephen Krashen on Language Learning in the Polyglot Community (YouTube, 36 minutes, 26.10.2017): a video created during the Polygot Gathering in Montreal. (Early in the video, Krashen mentions TPRS and Beniko Mason. Near the end of the video, Stephen Krashen says he wasn't aware of the polyglot community until Steve Kaufmann contacted him.)
- Turner, Jared: The Only Way We Truly Acquire a Language? (23.04.2014).
Jade Joddle: Can you learn a language just by listening? (7 minutes, YouTube). The short answer is, “No, just listening is not effective”.
Publications by Stephen D. Krashen
Publications are listed in chronological order. The list is not exhaustive.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: “Lateralization, language learning, and the critical period”, Language Learning, 23 (1973): 63-74.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: “Mental abilities underlying linguistic and non-linguistic functions”, Linguistics, 115 (1973): 39-55.
- Bailey, N.; Madden C.; Krashen, Stephen D.: “Is there a ‘natural sequence’ in adult second language learning?”, Language Learning, 21 (1974): 235-243.
- Krashen, Stephen D.; Seliger, H.; Hartnett, D.: “Two studies in adult second language learning”, Kritikon Litterarum, 3 (1974): 220-228.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: “The Major Hemisphere”, UCLA Educator, 17.2 (Spr. 1975): 17-23.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: “A model of second language performance”, paper presented at the winter meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, San Francisco, 1975.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: “The critical period for language acquisition and its possible bases”, in: Aaronson, D.; Rieber, R., eds.: Developmental Psycholinguistics and Communicative Disorders. New York: New York Academy of Science, 1975: 211-224.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: “The development of cerebral dominance and language learning: More new evidence”, in: Dato, D., ed.: Developmental Psycholinguistics: Theory and Applications. Georgetown University Round Table on on Languages and Linguistics. Washington: Georgetown University, 1975: 209-233.
- Krashen, Stephen D.; Pon, P.: “An error analysis of an advanced ELS learner: the importance of the Monitor”, Working Papers on Bilingualism, 7 (1975): 125-129.
- Krashen, Stephen D.; Seliger, H.: “The essential characteristics of formal instruction”, TESOL Quarterly, 9 (1975): 173-183.
- Krashen, Stephen D.; Seliger, Herbert W.: “Maturational Constraints on Second Dialect Acquisition”, Language Sciences, 38 (Dec. 1975): 28-29.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: “Formal and informal linguistic environments in language acquisition and language learning”, TESOL Quarterly, 10 (1976): 157-168.
- Krashen, Stephen D.; Seliger, H.: “The role of formal and informal linguistic environments in adult second language learning”, International Journal of Psycholinguistics, 3 (1976): 15-21.
- Birnbaum, R.; Butler, J.; Krashen, Stephen D.: “The use of the Monitor in free and edited ESL compositions”, paper presented at the Los Angeles Second Language Acquisition Forum, UCLA, February 1977.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: “Some issues relating to the monitor model”. In: H. Brown; C. Yorio; R. Crymes, eds.: On TESOL '77. Washington, D.C.: TESOL, 1977.
- Curtiss, S.; Fromkin, V.; Krashen, Stephen D.: “Language development in the mature (minor) right hemisphere”, ITL: Review of Applied Linguistics, 39-40 (1978): 23-37.
- Kounin, T.; Krashen, Stephen D.: “Approaching native speaker competence from two different directions”, In: Blatchford, C. and Schachter, J., eds.: On TESOL '78: EFL Policies, Programs, Practices. Washington: TESOL, 1978: 205-212.
- Krashen, Stephen D.; Butler, J.; Birnbaum, R.; Robertson, J.: “Two studies in language acquisition and language learning”, ITL: Review of Applied Linguistics, 39-40 (1978): 73-92.
- Krashen, Stephen D.; Jones, C.; Zelinski, S.; Usprich, C.: “How important is instruction?”, ELT Journal XXXII (1978): 257-261.
- Krashen, Stephen D.; Scarcella, R.: “On routines and patterns in language acquisition and performance”, Language Learning, 28 (1978): 283-300.
- Krashen, Stephen D.; Long, Michael A.; Scarcella, Robin C.: “Age, Rate and Eventual Attainment in Second Language Acquisition”, TESOL Quarterly, 13.4 (Dec. 1979): 573-582. (Avaiable on JSTOR.)
- Scarcella, R.; Krashen, Stephen D., eds.: Research in Second Language Acquisition. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House, 1980.
- Krashen, Stephen D.:
Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning.
Language Teaching Methodology Series. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1981. (151 pages)
ISBN 0 08 025338 5.
(Prentice Hall, 1988. ISBN 0137981902.)
This book is about the “Monitor Theory” and is based on (sometimes revised versions of) articles that were published between 1976 and 1980.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: “Effective second language acquisition: insights from research”. In: J. Alatis; H. Altman, P. Alatis, eds.: The Second Language Classroom: Directions for the 1980s. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.
- Krashen, Stephen D.:
Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition.
Alemany Press, 1982. ISBN 0137100477.
Oxford: Pergamon, 1982.
- Krashen, Stephen D.; Scarcella, R.; Long, Michael, eds.:
Child-Adult Differences in Second Language Acquisition.
Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House, 1982. ISBN 0-88377-206-X.
Oxford: Pergamon, 1982.
- Dulay, H.; Burt, M.; Krashen, Stephen D.: Language Two. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
- Krashen, Stephen D.; Terrell, Tracy D.: The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom. Oxford: Pergamon, 1983.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: Writing: Research, Theory and Applications. Pergamon, 1984. ISBN 0080311032.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. Longman, 1985. ISBN 0582553814.
- Krashen, Stephen D.; Biber, D.: On Course: California's Success in Bilingual Education. Los Angeles: California Association for Bilingual Education, 1988.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: We acquire vocabulary and spelling by reading: Additional evidence for the input hypothesis [abstract], The Modern Language Journal, Volume 73, Issue 4 (Winter 1989): 440-464.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: How much comprehensible input did Heinrich Schliemann get?, System, Volume 19, Issue 3 (1991): 189-190.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: “Sheltered subject matter teaching”, Cross Current, 18 (1991): 183-189.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: “The input hypothesis and its rivals”, In: Ellis, R., ed.: Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages. London: Academic Press, 1994.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: Self-correction and the monitor: Percent of errors corrected of those attempted vs percent corrected of all errors made, System, 22.1 (February 1994): 59-62.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: “The reading/listening library”, Mosaic, 2 (1995): 11.
- Krashen, Stephen D.; Terrell, Tracy D.: The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom. Revised edition. Blookaxe Books, 1996. ISBN 0136099343.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: “Principles of English as a Foreign Language”, English Teachers' Journal (Israel), 49 (April 1996): 11-19.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: Under Attack: The Case Against Bilingual Education. San Francisco: Alta Book Company, 1996. Heinemann, 1996. ISBN 0965280829 (Heinemann; out of print).
- Krashen, Stephen D.: Bridging Inequity With Books, Educational Leadership, 55.4 (Dec. 1997 - Jan. 1998): 18-22.
- Dupuy, Beatrice; Krashen, Stephen D.:
From lower-division to upper-division foreign language classes: Obstacles to reaching the promised land,
ITL: Review of Applied Linguistics, 119-120 (1998): 1-7.
Based on a study of five upper division language classes in Southern California, this paper found that only 10% of the students at this level were neither native speakers nor students who had used the language extensively outside the classroom (e.g. by studying abroad). The authors conclude that instruction at the beginner level needed to improve and that the intermediate level should be longer.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: Foreign Language Education the Easy Way. 1998. ISBN 0965280837.
- Krashen, Stephen D.; Tse, Lucy; McQuillan, Jeff, eds.: Heritage Language Development. Culver City, California: Language Education Associates, 1998. ISBN 0-9652808-4-5.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: “Do graduates of bilingual programs really earn less? A response to Lopez and Mora”, NABE News, 22.3 (1998): 506.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: Condemned Without a Trial: Bogus Arguments Against Bilingual Education. Heinemann, 1999. (128 pages) ISBN 978-0-325-00129-6 / 0-325-00129-4.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: Three Arguments Against Whole Language & Why They Are Wrong. Heinemann, 1999. (103 pages) ISBN 978-0-325-00119-7 / 0-325-00119-7.
- Krashen, Stephen D.; Crawford, Jim: “The research, the scientific method, and the Delaware- Massachusetts argument”, NABE News, 22.5 (1999): 14-15.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: Bilingual Education: Arguments For and (Bogus) Arguments Against, Georgetown University Roundtable on Languages and Linguistics, 6 May 1999.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: “Looking for Bilingual Answers”, American Language Review, 4.1 (Jan-Jeb 2000): 16-19.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: Bilingual Education Works, Rethinking Schools, Winter 2000/2001.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: The Testing Movement and Delayed Gratification, Educators for Urban Minorities, 2.1 (2001): 48-50.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: The comprehension hypothesis and its rivals, In: Selected Papers from the Eleventh International Symposium on English Teaching/Fourth Pan-Asian Conference 2002. Taipei: Crane Publishing Company.
- Krashen, Stephen D.:
Don't Trust Ed Trust,
Substance, 27 (February 2002): 3. (5 pages)
Also reprinted on the website of FairTest.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: Explorations in Language Acquisition and Use. Heinemann, 2003. (112 pages) ISBN 978-0-325-00554-6 / 0-325-00554-0.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: Free Voluntary Reading. Libraries Unlimited / ABC-CLIO, 2004. (90 pages) ISBN 978-1-59884-844-1.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: The Power of Reading: Insights from the Research. 2nd edition. Libraries Unlimited / ABC-CLIO, 2004. (180 pages) (First edition: 1993) ISBN 978-1-59158-169-7.
- Krashen, Stephen D.:
The Hard Work Hypothesis: Is Doing Your Homework Enough to Overcome the Effects of Poverty?,
Multicultural Education, 12.4 (2005): 16-19.
Low socio-economic status (SES) is the strongest predictor of academic success. Krashen examines claims that hard work, especially homework, can overcome the disadvantages associated with a low SES. Children of the Boat People and the Hmong did well in American schools and were hard workers. However, the Boat People's good overall scores were mainly due to their high performance in mathematics, and their parents may have been better educated than the average Vietnamese people. The Hmong students were often given passing grades based on their behaviour (they were quiet, polite and respectful) rather than their academic performance. Krashen concludes (among other things) that parental education may be a more important aspect of SES than current income, and that academic success should not be measured exclusively through standardised tests.
- Shin, Fay H.; Krashen, Stephen D.: Summer Reading: Program and Evidence. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2007. (113 pages) ISBN 978-0-205-50489-3.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: The Comprehension Hypothesis Extended, in: Piske, Thorsten; Young-Scholten, Martha (Eds.): Input Matters in SLA. Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2008. pp. 81-94. (ISBN 9781847691095)
- Krashen, Stephen D.:
RELC Journal, 43.2 (2012): 283-285.
Article on the strange inclination of many academics to admire incomprehensible papers and presentations (and their authors).
- Krashen, Stephen D.: Does Duolingo “Trump” University-Level Language Learning?, International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 9.1 (January 2014):13-15.
- Krashen, Stephen D.: Bilingual Education: Ninety Questions, Ninety Answsers, (undated; website of the Arizona Assocation for Bilingual Education).
Journal Articles and Books on Stephen D. Krashen's Work
- White, Lydia: Against Comprehensible Input: the Input Hypothesis and the Development of Second-language Competence [abstract], Applied Linguistics, 8.2 (1982): 95-110.
- Gregg, Kevin R.: “Krashen's Monitor and Occam's Razor”, Applied Linguistics, 5.2 (February 1984): 79-100.
- Hammerly, Hector: The Immersion Approach: Litmus Test of Second Language Acquisition through Classroom Communication, The Modern Language Journal, 71.4 (Winter 1987): 395-401. (Article can be read onlin at JSTOR.)
- Horner, David: Acquisition, learning and the monitor: A critical look at Krashen, System, Volume 15, Issue 3 (1987): pages 339-349.
- Leverett, Thomas: Explorations in Language Acquisition and Use: The Taipei lectures - Stephen D. Krashen (2003), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (TESL-EJ), Vol. 7, No. 2 (September 2003).
- Lin, Grace Hui Chin (林慧菁): Pedagogies Proving Krashen’s Theory of Affective Filter, Hwa Kang Journal of English Language & Literature, No. 14 (July 2008): 113-131.
- Iris-Wilbanks, Joy: Affective Filter Hypothesis in Second Language Acquisition, TSOL 2013.
- Polat, Nihat: L2 Learning, Teaching and Assessment: A Comprehensible Input Perspective. Second Language Acquisition. Multilingual Matters, 2016. (248 pages) ISBN 9781783096336.
Other Links Related to Stephen D. Krashen and His Work
- Scott, Robb: Achievement Profile: Stephen Krashen: "So Many Years Left, So Many Languages to Acquire!", ESL MiniConference, 2002.
- Jordan, Geoff:
Krashen 1: Hoey’s view (10.04.2014),
Krashen 2: Open letter,
Krashen 3: Open letter,
Krashen 4: Open letter 2,
Krashen 5: Summary of Responses,
Krashen 6: Summary,
(Karen Roehr noted in her review of Geoff Jordan's Theory Construction in Second Language Acquisition (June 2004) that Jordan appears to be biased against Krashen's theory.)
Comprehensible Input in Second Language Acquisition,
St. Carrie’s Classroom, 12.09.2011.
In this blog post, an anonymous ESL teacher in Kenya explains how she used premodified input (see Ellis) to learn Swahili. Since she had not learnt the pronunciation and some basic vocabulary before moving to Kenya, she got very little comprehensible input when she arrived there.
The “opposite” of Stephen Krashen's input hypothesis is the comprehensible output (CO) hypothesis formulated by Merrill Swain.