This section of the site is about both teaching foreign languages and native language teaching.
General Introductions and Basics
- Bill VanPatten: Part 1- What Everyone Should Know about Second Language Acquisition (19 minutes), Part 2- What Everyone Should Know about Second Language Acquisition (17 minutes), Part 3- What Everyone Should Know about Second Language Acquisition (13 minutes), Part 4- What Everyone Should Know about Second Language Acquisition (9 minutes). Part 5- What Everyone Should Know about Second Language Acquisition (9 minutes). Part 6- What Everyone Should Know about Second Language Acquisition (10 minutes). (YouTube, April 2014): videos of a presentation at the MiWLA, 2013. (You can also go directly to the playlist.)
- Emmitt, Marie; Zbaracki, Matthew; Komesaroff, Linda; Pollock, John (editors): Language and Learning: An Introduction for Teaching. Sixth edition. Oxford University Press, 2014. (384 pages) ISBN 9780195522266.
- Ur, Penny: Penny Ur's 100 Teaching Tips. Cambridge Handbooks for Language Teachers. Cambridge University Presss, 2016. ISBN 978-1-316-50728-5.
- Thornbury, Scott: Scott Thornbury's 30 Language Teaching Methods. Cambridge Handbooks for Language Teachers. Cambridge University Presss, 2017. ISBN 978-1-108-40846-2.
- Apprendre une langue étrangère à un enfant : quelques astuces, Assimil — Le Blog, 24.01.2017.
- Blackburn, Barbara R.: 3 Strategies for Teaching Academic Vocabulary, Middleweb, 13.01.2020.
- Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Concepts, Read Naturally (accessed on 20.04.2020).
Whether or not to teach grammar and how to do it has been a huge discussion topic in the last few decades (especially, apparently, since Stephen Krashen's language learning/acquisition theory, which included a "non-interface" position between learning and acquisition).
- Walter, Catherine:
Teaching grammar inductively: why, when & how students can work it out for themselves,
British Council, 2014 (YouTube playlist with 8 videos).
This is a series of short videos about teaching grammar without teaching it explicitly, and what the current theories about this topic are.
- Swan, Michael: Teaching Grammar - Does Grammar Teaching Work?, Modern English Teacher, 15/2 (2006).
- Weiler, Andrew: Effective Grammar Practice, Strategies in Language Learning, 27.07.2017.
- Is doing a huge amount of grammar exercises helpful for learning English?, question on Language Learning Stack Exchange.
Grammar Lessons That Work, Teach Grammar in Just 10 Min. a Week, High School Teacher Vlog
(Laura Randazzo on YouTube, 10 minutes, 09.09.2017).
A high-school teacher in the USA explains that she used to dutifully go through grammar books with exercises. She noticed that the pupils weren't applying the grammar they learnt in their writing, so she turned to a different method. In this video, she explains how she uses “M.U.G. shots”. M.U.G. stands for “Mechanics, Usage and Grammar”; the teaching activity consists in showing a sentence containing several grammar mistakes, having the pupils correct them and then discussing what was wrong and why.
Total Physical Response (TPR)
Total physical response (TPR) is an approach developed by James Asher.
- Ludescher, Franz: Total Physical Response - TPR. Introduces the teaching approach and discusses its weaknesses (e.g. inappropriateness beyond the beginner level).
- Bowen, Tim:
Teaching approaches: total physical response,
OneStopEnglish (no date, possibly 2013).
Bowen says, among many other things, that TPR
was never intended by its early proponents that it should extend beyond beginner level.
- Risley, Lee: Total Physical Response (TPR): collection of testimonials and comments about TPR.
- The Everyday Language Learner Interview Series: Dr. James J. Asher (YouTube, 51 minutes).
- REEP Adult English Classes (in Arlington): Spotlight On: Total Physical Response (YouTube, 4 minutes).
- Shelley Vernon: The Hows and Whys of Teaching Pronunciation, Teaching English Games (no date).
- Judy B. Gilbert: Teaching Pronunciation: Seven Essential Concepts, recording of a 80-minute lecture at the New School (New York) in 2011.
- Adrian Underhill: Introduction to Teaching Pronunciation Workshop, recording of an hour-long workshop. (Macmilland Education ELT, 2011).
- Adrian Underhill: Proprioception in learning new sounds, words and connected speech, recording of a 55-minute lecture (British Council, 2015).
- Piers Messum: What to teach before you teach sounds, recording of a 40-minute seminar (British Council, 2015).
- Roslyn Young: The Silent Way approach to teaching pronunciation, recording of a 40-minute seminar (British Council, 2015).
Communicative Language Teaching
- Five Communicative Language Teaching Methods (YouTube, 15 minutes, 22.11.2011; CC-BY licence).
Unsorted Teaching Techniques and Approaches
Techniques for Teaching English
- Niemier, Susanne: Task-based grammar teaching of English. Where cognitive grammar and task-based language teaching meet. Tübingen: Narr, 2017. ISBN 978-3-8233-8130-3 (print) ISBN 978-3-8233-9130-2 (e-book).
- Bridge TEFL: Teaching Grammar with Board Races - TEFL ESL (6 minutes, YouTube).
- Global English TESOL courses: TESOL/TEFL training: Teaching a Grammatical Structure (9 minutes, YouTube).
- Guzman, Roberto: Teaching English without Teaching English, TEDx UPRM, December 2015 (19 minutes, YouTube).
- BridgeTEFL is the YouTube channel of an American organisation that provides teacher training. Some of the videos are applicable to language teaching in general, not just English.
- Guys With Games ESL/EAL activities is a YouTube channel with ideas for games that can be used when teaching English.
- Top 8 ESL Games Every Teacher Should Know, Reach to Teach blog, no date.
- Gates, Dylan: 10 Board Games for EFL Teachers, Teach English in Spain, 13.07.2015.
- Board Race ESL Vocabulary Game, ESL Expat, 21.01.2016.
- Verner, Susan: 9 New Tips for Using Literature in the ESL Classroom, Busy Teacher (no date).
Techniques for Teaching French
- JLMFL - Teaching (French): a blog by Jess Lund, head of French at the Michaela Community School in Wembley, UK.
Techniques for Teaching German
- Goethe-Institut: Ideen für den Deutschunterricht.
- Olderdissen, Bernadette: Spielen im DaF-Unterricht mit Erwachsenen, Jugendlichen und Kindern, experto.de, 20.01.2012.
- Sprache ist Integration: 18 Fehler, die neue DaF/DaZ-LehrerInnen machen [1/3], 18 Fehler, die neue DaF/DaZ-LehrerInnen machen [2/3], 18 Fehler, die neue DaF/DaZ-LehrerInnen machen [3/3]. Three videos, each between 10 and 13 minutes long.
- Deutsch lernen mit der DW: Deutsch unterrichten für Anfänger: 10 Tipps | Mach dein Herz auf. YouTube playlist containing 21 short videos (2 to 3 minutes each).
Techniques for Teaching Chinese
- Singh, Michael; Nguyễn, Thị Hồng Nhung:
Localising Chinese: Educating Teachers through Service-Learning. Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.
According to the publisher's description,
This book presents innovative strategies for teaching the Chinese language to English-speaking students around the world, using in-depth research arising from a long-running and successful Chinese language teaching programme in Sydney. Throughout the book its authors emphasise the importance of teaching methods which explore the relevance of Chinese to all aspects of students’ everyday lives; ‘Localising Chinese’ by folding it into students’ everyday sociolinguistic activities performed in English.
- Lu, Yang (editor): Teaching and Learning Chinese in Higher Education: Theoretical and Practical Issues. Routledge, 2017. ISBN 9781138697676.
- Hu, Bo: Manual for Teaching and Learning Chinese as a Foreign Language. Routledge, 2018. ISBN 9781138309302.
General Technique and Techniques for Other Languages
- ZUM-Wiki: Lernspiele im Sprachunterricht. The ZUM-Wiki is an open platform for learning content and learning processes. The content of this wiki is available under the Creative Commons Contribution Share-Alike licence.
- Scott, Gray:
Can we really teach writing?,
TEDx TWU, March 2016 (17 minutes, YouTube).
Research has shown that a focus on grammar is detrimental in teaching students how to write. (See Gray Scott's website for a list of his publications.)
- The Art of Blind Kahoot!'ing, Kahoot!, 28.10.2015.
- Phonics: In Depth, Reading Rockets, no date.
- Cleary, Michelle Navarre: The Wrong Way to Teach Grammar, The Atlantic, 25.02.2014.
- What works in education?
- National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE, USA):
What Works Clearinghouse (WWC):
According to its own description,
The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) reviews the existing research on different programs, products, practices, and policies in education.
- Evidence Informed Policy and Practice in Education in Europe (EIPPEE).
- Education Endowment Foundation (EEF): Teaching & Learning Toolkit.
- Thornbury, Scott: How could SLA research inform EdTech?, ELTJam, 16.06.2014.
- Education Development Trust: researchED.
- National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE, USA): What Works Clearinghouse (WWC): According to its own description,
- Nation, Paul: Applying the Four Strands (YouTube, 67 minutes, 14.08.2017): recording of a lecture at the Foreign Service Institute's School of Language Studies.
- Lainé, Cécile:
“Teach Like A Pirate”: Boost your creativity on even the most boring topics,
Cécile Lainé's blog, 06.07.2013.
See the book Teach Like a Pirate: Increase Student Engagement, Boost Your Creativity, and Transform Your Life as an Educator by Dave Burgess.
- Khoo, Yishin: Teaching Chinese the Unconventional Way: presentatation at TEDxTeachersCollege about teaching Chinese in a Tibetan monastery (YouTube, 12 minutes, 09.08.2012).
- Encounters Chinese: YouTube channel for Yale University's Encounters Chinese program, which was created by Cindy Ning. See for example the video Encounters Chinese Language and Culture: Teaching Strategies for the Classroom (YouTube, 5 minutes, 13.06.2011): example of pair work or group work.
- Goethe-Institut Japan: Unterrichtsbeispiel vom Goethe-Institut Tokyo (YouTube, 15 minutes, 13.02.2011): the first part of the video shows an activity in which learners conduct simple interviews with each other. The last part of the video shows another activity where learners need to interact with each other.
TPRS: Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling:
- Waltz, Terry: Teaching Mandaring Chinese through TPRS / CI (Terry Waltz on YouTube, 28 minutes, 04.03.2015).
- Chinese TPRS Demo for Blaine Ray Workshop (haiyun lu on YouTube, 23 minutes, 02.03.2016).
- Chinese 101: "Q&A TIME" at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (TPRS Circling) Reed Riggs (Reed Riggs on YouTube, 11 minutes, 28.08.2013).
- t.p.r.s. q&a: a blog by Chris Stolz.
- Waltz, Terry: Optimizing Immersion: a blog focusing on comprehensible input. See for example, Wow, this list of 100 English fairy tales are great to use for Level 1 TPRS stories! (26.05.2018).
- Terry's Blog: another blog by Terry Waltz.
Teaching Foreign Languages to Hearing-Impaired and Deaf Learners
- Teaching Deaf or Hard of Hearing Students, Deaf websites (no date): short introductory article with useful links.
- Modern Teaching Techniques for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students, Saint Joseph's University (no date): introductory information from an American university that offers an online Master’s Program for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Education.
- Benwell, Tara: Teaching English to Hearing Impaired Learners, EnglishClub (no date).
- Epstein, Naomi: Teaching English To Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students, ESL Library blog, 18.06.2012.
Grading and Evaluation
- Stommel, Jesse: Why I Don't Grade, Jesse Stommel's blog, 26.10.2017. (Retweeted by Stephen Krashen on 2 November 2017.)
- Mulholland, Quinn: The Case Against Standardized Testing, Harvard Political Review, 14.05.2015.
- Broussard, Meredith:
Why Poor Schools Can’t Win at Standardized Testing,
The Atlantic, 15.07.2014.
The companies that create the most important state and national exams also publish textbooks that contain many of the answers. Unfortunately, low-income school districts can’t afford to buy them.
- What's Wrong With Standardized Tests?, FairTest, 22.05.2012.
- Kamenetz, Anya:
5 Reasons standardized testing won’t slow down,
Penelope Trunk Education, 05.03.2015.
The five reasons are the following:
- Companies that publish the tests make tons of money.
- The test prep industry is lucrative.
- The people who determine how we reform education are the people who can fund education reform.
- The Common Core is what makes Ed Tech lucrative.
- School reform in the US attracts business people. Not educators.
- Jouriles, Greg: Here's Why We Don't Need Standardized Tests, Education Week, 08.07.2014.
- Kaplan, Robert B. (editor): The Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Oxford Handbooks. Oxford University Press, 2010. (792 pages) ISBN 9780195384253.
Technology Enhanced Language Learning: Connecting theory and practice. Oxford University Press, 2013. (224 pages)
The publisher's book description:
Understand why and how you can use technology to enhance learning in the language classroom.
- Methodengeschichte des Fremdsprachenunterrichts. In: Wikipedia, Die freie Enzyklopädie. History of foreign language teaching methods in the German version of Wikipedia.
- Krischke, Wolfgang: Nutzloser Frühstart: Warum Englisch für Grundschüler doch keine so tolle Idee ist, Die Zeit, 12.04.2012.
- Echevarria, Manny:
What is the Best Language Teaching Method?,
ALTA blog, 10.03.2010.
This blog post briefly compares the direct method, the grammar-translation method and the audio-lingual method.
- Action research:
The Journal of Teacher Action Research:
a journal that
publishes peer-reviewed articles and lesson plans written by teachers and researchers to inform classroom practice.
- Cambridge English Teacher Development: Action research for busy language teachers (PDF).
- George Mason University: Action Research.
- The Journal of Teacher Action Research: a journal that
- An Interview with Michael Swan, StudyCELTA blog, 22.02.2018.
- El Éxito Educativo de Finlandia: Michael Moore (Grupo Competir on YouTube, 10 minutes, 01.08.2016): video (in English with Spanish subtitles) in which Michael Moore finds out why Finnish education is so successful. There are fewer classroom hours, there is almost no homework and there are no standardised tests. (This is not specifically about language learning or teaching but about the educational system as a whole.)
- García Cortés, Rosario; Grass, Kacper: English Language Examinations: Towards a Universal Approach to Language Education?, Factory for Innovative Policy Solutions, 12.09.2020.